do i have to disclose medical information to my employer

California employees often face uncertainty regarding their rights to privacy and the disclosure of medical information in the workplace. Understanding these rights is critical, especially when dealing with sensitive health issues.


This article aims to clarify when and what medical information you might need to disclose to your employer, focusing on California-specific laws and protections.



Understanding Your Privacy Rights

Under California state law, employees’ medical privacy is protected by several laws, including the Confidentiality of Medical Information Act (CMIA) and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). These laws establish clear boundaries on how employers can access and use medical information.

Confidentiality of Medical Information Act (CMIA)

Under the CMIA, employers are prohibited from using, disclosing, or compelling disclosure of an employee’s medical information without their consent. This means your employer cannot request detailed medical information without a legitimate reason directly related to your job.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

HIPAA also provides robust protections, although it primarily applies to healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses. However, if your employer receives your medical information from one of these entities, they must comply with HIPAA’s privacy rules.

Do I Have to Disclose Medical Information to My Employer? When It Makes Sense

Reasonable Accommodations

One of the most common scenarios where you might need to disclose medical information is when requesting reasonable accommodations for a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and California’s Fair Employment and Housing Act (FEHA).


For instance, if you have a chronic condition that affects your ability to perform certain job duties, you may need to provide medical documentation supporting your accommodation request. However, this disclosure should be limited to information relevant to your accommodation needs, not your entire medical history.

Leave of Absence

Another scenario involves taking a leave of absence under laws such as the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) or the California Family Rights Act (CFRA). In these cases, you might need to provide medical certification to verify your need for leave. Again, the information disclosed should be specific to your need for leave and not your full medical background.

Limits on Employer Access to Information on Your Medical Condition

Job-Related Inquiries

Employers can only request health information that is directly related to job performance or necessary accommodations. They cannot ask for medical details that are unrelated or make decisions based on generalized health inquiries.


For example, if you need a modified work schedule due to a medical condition, your employer can request documentation that explains the need for this adjustment but cannot delve into unrelated aspects of your health.

Confidentiality Obligations

Any medical documents obtained by your employer must be treated as protected health information and stored separately from your general personnel file. This ensures that access is restricted to authorized personnel only, preventing potential misuse or unauthorized disclosure.

Navigating Medical Inquiries During Hiring

Pre-Employment Protections

Do I have to disclose medical information to my employer even if I’m technically not hired yet? During the hiring process, employers are limited in the types of medical inquiries they can make.


California law prohibits employers from asking about your personal medical information or requiring a medical examination until after a conditional job offer has been made. This restriction helps ensure that hiring decisions are based on your qualifications rather than potential health issues.

Post-Offer Medical Examinations

After extending a conditional job offer, employers may require a medical examination or request medical information, but this must be relevant to the job’s requirements and conducted for all candidates in similar roles.


If the job offer is rescinded based on medical information, the employer must demonstrate that the condition would prevent you from performing essential job functions or pose a direct threat to workplace safety.

What Medical Information Is My Employer Entitled To?

Relevant Information Only

Do I have to disclose medical information to my employer when asked? Employers are entitled to request medical information that directly pertains to job requirements or necessary accommodations.

For instance, if you request an ergonomic workstation due to a back condition, your employer may ask for documentation that outlines how the accommodation will assist you in performing your job duties. However, they cannot demand comprehensive medical records or information unrelated to the accommodation.

Maintaining Boundaries

What medical information is my employer entitled to? Provide only the information necessary to address the specific issue at hand. Over-disclosure can lead to unnecessary complications and potential privacy breaches. Employers must respect the boundaries of what is needed and avoid invasive inquiries.

Protecting Your Rights

If you believe your employer has unlawfully requested or used your medical information, you have several avenues for recourse:

  1. Document Everything: Keep detailed records of all communications and requests from your employer regarding your medical information. This includes emails, letters, and notes from meetings.
  2. Understand Your Rights: Familiarize yourself with the relevant laws and protections, such as CMIA, HIPAA, ADA, and FEHA. This knowledge will help you recognize any potential violations.
  3. Seek Legal Advice: Do I have to disclose medical information to my employer? Not really, but consulting with an experienced employment lawyer can provide clarity on your rights and options for addressing potential violations. Legal professionals can help you understand California employment laws regarding private medical information, advocate for your privacy rights, and ensure fair treatment in the workplace.


Work With the Best Employment Law Specialists in California. Call RTM Law for a Free Consultation.

RTM Law Firm protects the rights of California employees facing medical privacy concerns and other workplace challenges.


Our team of skilled labor lawyers understands the intricacies of state and federal employment laws, offering strategic guidance and advocacy tailored to your unique situation.


If you have questions about medical information disclosure, discrimination, or any other employment issue, contact us for a confidential consultation. Let us help you explore your legal options and work towards a positive resolution in your workplace disputes.


Call our attorneys at (949) 287-4342.




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